The Oregon trail was Missouri based route. In 1863, with all the political bickering over railroad legislation, entrepreneurs opened their pockets and set their sights on the American Southwest leading to the gradual construction east to west of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway; the name eponymously reflecting the intentions of the founders, the expected eastern terminus to be in Atchison, Kansas. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. From Watrous, the reunited branches continued southward to Santa Fe. The Santa Fe Trail began as a commercial venture when the quickly growing population in Santa Fe needed goods and services. Santa Fe Trail, in U.S. history, famed wagon trail from Independence, Mo., to Santa Fe, N.M., an important commercial route (1821–80). Answer: The Santa Fe Trail was America's first commercial highway... Before its demise due to the completion of the Santa Fe railroad, the Santa Fe Trail served as a thoroughfare for countless traders, pioneers and America's military, and it played a crucial role in America's westward expansion. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Santa Fe Trail, stretching 1,200 miles from Franklin, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico, was one of America’s great trading routes. It connects El Monte to Westward Expansion after the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, firmly lodging the city within the U.S. nation-state and cutting off anything or anyone that came before the first American families in El Monte in the 19th century. Santa Fe Trail Route What is the Santa Fe Trail? Of its approximate 750 miles, two-thirds of the route lay in Kansas. Travelers faced many hardships along the Santa Fe Trail. Manufactured goods were hauled from the state of Missouri in the United States to Santa Fe, which was in the northern Mexican state of Nuevo Mexico.[7]. It was also called as The Great Prairie Highway for 60 years connecting economies of different territories through trading. After the Mexican and American war in 1849 mass immigration started again. He found a trail for part of the route that was wide enough for wagon trains and draft teams, making it … After Warfield's men reached Bent's Fort on foot, they disbanded. Commercial freighting along the trail boomed to unheard-of levels, including considerable military freight hauling to supply the southwestern forts. Houston agreed, provided the operation be conducted under the strictest secrecy. He proposed deposing the governments in the Mexican provinces of New Mexico and Chihuahua and returning half of the spoils to the Republic of Texas. American traders envisioned them as another market. Building the railway so that it extended westwards to destinations in and beyond the New Mexico border was delayed and kept the fledgling railroad gasping for cash. William Becknell (1787 or 1788 – April 30, 1865) was an American soldier, politician, and freight operator who is credited by Americans with opening the Santa Fe Trail in 1821. The leave earlier meant the expense of carrying corn along to feed the animals in their wagon train. Even so, it became important in the Santa Fe trade. Santa Fe was near the northern terminus of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which led overland between Mexico City to San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico. Taos became a center for the so-called southern fur trade. Following this battle, many Americas resigned and Snively's force was reduced to little over 100 men. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, who departed from the Boonslick region along the Missouri River, the trail served as a vital commercial highway until 1880, when the railroad arrived in Santa Fe. Santa Fe Trail and Oregon Trail. It passed north of Marshall, through Lexington to Fort Osage, then to Independence. From Olathe, the trail passed through the towns of Baldwin City, Burlingame, and Council Grove, then swung west of McPherson to the town of Lyons. West of Franklin, the trail crossed the Missouri near Arrow Rock, after which it followed roughly the route of present-day U.S. Route 24. The political philosophy of Manifest Destiny, the idea that the US should extend from one coast to another, dominated national political discussions. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Santa Fe trail, Official Map and Guide; National Park Service; Harpers Ferry, West Virginia; 1997, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 85th and Manchester "Three Trails" Trail Segment, Santa Fe Trail-Saline County Trail Segments, Santa Fe Trail Mountain Route--Bent's New Fort, Northern Rio Grande National Heritage Area, Great Santa Fe Trail Horse Race Endurance Ride, "Old Franklin, Missouri & the Start of the Santa Fe Trail", "Narrative of the Texan Santa Fé Expedition - Wikiquote", "Kansas: A Encyclopedia of State History", "REPUBLIC OF TEXAS | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)", "Aerial Photos Topo Maps of Santa Fe Trail Ruts and Sites", "National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Nomination Form: Historic Resources of the Santa Fe Trail, 1821–1880", "National Historic Landmarks Program (NHL): Santa Fe Trail Remains", Santa Fe Trail Research Site Aerial Photo Tour of the Santa Fe Trail, Access documents, photographs, and other primary sources on Kansas Memory, the Kansas State Historical Society's digital portal, New Mexico Santa Fe Trail National Scenic Byway, Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail, Mississippi River Water Trail (MRWT) Great River Water Trail, Missouri National Recreational River Water Trail, U.S. National Register of Historic Places, History of the National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Santa_Fe_Trail&oldid=992945889, Roads on the National Register of Historic Places in Colorado, Roads on the National Register of Historic Places in Missouri, Roads on the National Register of Historic Places in New Mexico, Roads on the National Register of Historic Places in Oklahoma, Native American trails in the United States, Trails and roads in the American Old West, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, All articles needing additional references, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from April 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 23:40. During the early 1870s, three different railroads vied to build rails over Raton Pass in order to serve the New Mexico market. Rattlesnakes often posed a threat, and many people died due to snakebites. Traders on the Santa Fe Trail generally left for Santa Fe in May, when the grass was high enough to afford forage for their animals and they arrived in July of the same year. [original research? Santa Fe Trail, important caravan route of the W United States, extending c.780 mi (1,260 km) from Independence, Mo., SW to Santa Fe, N.Mex. The party was captured by governor Armijo's Mexican army under less than honest negotiations. Some traders used the so-called Mountain Route, which offered more dependable water but required an arduous trip over Raton Pass. From 1610, when the Spanish founded the city of Santa Fe, to the 1860s, when the railroad brought unprecedented changes: here is the full, fascinating story of the great Santa Fe Trail which ran between Missouri and Kansas and New Mexico--a lifeline to and from the Southwest for more than two centuries. Their intention was to persuade the people of Santa Fe and New Mexico to relinquish control over the territory under dispute with Mexico, and over associated Santa Fe Trail commerce. The trail was used to carry products from the central plains to the trail head towns St. Joseph and Independence, Missouri. In 1854, Jeb Stuart, George Custer and other graduates from West Point are posted to Kansas to help pacify the territory before railroad construction to Santa Fe can resume. In a sense, after World War I the trail was reborn; by the 1920s it gradually became paved automobile roads. New Mexicans appreciated the relative freedoms of a frontier, remote from Mexico City. In 1825, Congress voted for federal protection for the Santa Fe Trail, even though much of it lay in the Mexican territory. Part of this route has been designated a National Scenic Byway. The road route is commemorated today by the National Park Service as the Santa Fe National Historic Trail. A second consequence was that Americans realized that settlement was possible along the eastern part of the trail. The French explorer Pedro Vial pioneered the route in 1792, and French traders from St. Louis gained a fur trading monopoly from the Spanish in Santa Fe. The railroad began to discount such trips to visit its land offices and gave back the ticket price as part of the purchase price, if a sale was concluded. Though the Mountain Route of the Santa Fe Trail presented some problems, especially the crossing over Raton Pass, it most definitely had its advantages, including the fact that it had plenty of water and was relatively safe from Indian attacks. List two economic or political consequences of the Santa Fe Trail. So from 1821 till 1846 this trail's main use was as a international commercial highway for Mexican and American traders. With the development of rail transport, traffic on the Trail soon dropped to merely local trade. [19] In fact, the Cimarron River was one of the only sources of water along this branch of the trail. They raided to gain a steady supply of horses to sell. Between 1821 and 1880, the Santa Fe Trail was primarily a commercial highway connecting Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico. Why was the Santa Fe Trail Important? West of Independence, it roughly followed the route of U.S. Route 56 from near the town of Olathe to the western border of Kansas. After the murder of Chávez, Warfield began limited military hostilities in the region using recruits from the southern Rockies. Santa Fe Trail, in U.S. history, famed wagon trail from Independence, Mo., to Santa Fe, N.M., an important commercial route (1821–80). Then, in 1846, the Mexican-American War began, and a few months later, America’s Army of the West followed the Santa Fe Trail westward to successfully invade Mexico. A highway route that roughly follows the trail's path, through the entire length of Kansas, the southeast corner of Colorado and northern New Mexico, has been designated as the Santa Fe Trail National Scenic Byway. The trail followed several different routes depending on weather conditions and terrain. The route across Missouri first used by Becknell followed portions of the existing Osage Trace and the Medicine Trails. Santa Fe Trail This trails' long history of use started with William Becknell, who was the first of the traders to use this trail. ], In 1825, the merchant Manuel Escudero of Chihuahua was commissioned by New Mexico governor Bartolome Baca to negotiate in Washington, DC for opening U.S. borders to traders from Mexico. [5], The American army used the trail route in 1846 to invade New Mexico during the Mexican–American War.[6]. Also on this trail, unlike the Oregon trail, there was a serious danger of Indian attacks, for neither the Comanches nor the Apaches of the southern high plains tolerated trespassers. Learn more about trail life, trail impacts on indigenous people, how the trail shaped history and more! Trappers and hunters who sought beaver pelts and the hides of other animals used Taos as a place to trade their harvests for new supplies. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Franklin, It was used extensively by traders, freighters, those headed to Pikes Peak, and the military from its survey by the federal government in 1825 until the 1870s. The earlier Fort and the identity of its traders are less certain; they may have been independents and not employees of the large fur companies. The Santa Fe Trail divided into two main sections in New Mexico: the Cimarron Cutoff, and the Mountain Route. And so the Santa Fe trail was born which lasted for 58 years and brought what is now the southwestern part of the US to the attention of settlers, traders and businessmen. The Santa Fe Trail By: Will Anderson 8B/1 Alana Van Slovis 8B/17 Caroline Rothans 8B/12 Bring-A-Longs Difficulties People, who were usually traders, brought food materials like coffee, sugar, flour, salt, beans, and dried apples with them on the trail. The Republic of Texas competed with Mexico in claiming Santa Fe, as part of the territory north and east of the Rio Grande which both nations claimed following Texas's secession from Mexico in 1836. The trail connected interior port cities along the Mississippi and Missouri and their wagon train outfitters to western destinations. Near 3126 Santa Fe Road, on the east side of the road, is a clearly visible Santa Fe Trail ramp down part of a high creek bank. In a move to bootstrap their own base market, the railway began offering packaged "Shopping Excursion deals" to potential buyers desiring to look over a real estate parcel. [9]. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition departed from Austin, Texas for Santa Fe. By 1843, traders from New Mexico and Chihuahua had become the majority of traders involved in the traffic of goods over the Santa Fe Trail. The route was pioneered by Missouri trader William Becknell, who left Franklin, Missouri in September 1821. The limited trade traffic transited the site that would become Fort Bent in Colorado (directly on the Santa Fe Trail) and the short-lived trading fort (name, owner, management, dates all uncertain) that was located at the junction of the Trapper's Trail and Oregon Trail. But, after the Invincibles destroyed much of an advance party led by Captain Ventura Lovato, the governor retreated. The railroad's sale of its land granted by congress fostered growth of new towns and businesses along its route, which generated railway traffic and revenues. Its major market in Missouri was St. Louis, with its port on the Mississippi River. Within two years, rails had been laid all the way across central Kansas, and by 1873, two different rail lines reached from eastern Kansas all the way into Colorado. These women never met, but their letters and … Freshwater was scarce, and the high steppe-like plains are nearly treeless. They represented the Republic of Texas and its president Mirabeau B. Lamar. Take a look at places along the Trail. The newspapers reported that Americans and Mexicans were outraged by the crime. Beginning in 1826, prominent aristocratic families of New Mexicans, such as the Chávezes, Armijos, Pereas, and Oteros, entered into the commerce along the trail. In the 19th century the Santa Fe Trail was one of the longest and most important trade routes in the United States. Two major wagon networks that were famous among the migrants were the Oregon Trail and Santa Fe trail. The Santa Fe Trail was a commercial route connecting Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico from 1821 to 1880. West of Garden City in southwestern Kansas the trail splits into two branches. Traders and settlers crossed the southwest of North America by the route connecting Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Click card to see definition 👆 One consequence was that the companies made money. National Trails In 1866, just a year after the Civil War ended, an unprecedented period of railroad expansion began in the new state of Kansas. Santa Fe was near the end of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which carried trade from Mexico City. The history of the trail in New Mexico is full of interesting facts and stories. In the 1820s–30s, it was also sporadically important in the reverse trade, used by traders to transport foods and supplies to the fur trappers and mountain men opening the remote Northwest, especially in the interior Northwest: Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana. From 1821 until 1846, the Santa Fe Trail was a two-way international commercial highway used by both Mexican and American traders. The Texan Santa Fe Expedition, a politico-military-commercial expedition of 1841, was occasioned by President Mirabeau B. Lamar's desire to divert to Texas at least a part of the trade then carried over the Santa Fe Trail and, if possible, to establish Texas jurisdiction over the Santa Fe area, which the Republic of Texas claimed on the basis of an act of December 19, 1836. Speaking of the military, the Santa Fe Trail played an important role in the Civil War as well. 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